AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-CULTURAL BARRIERS TOWARDS WOMEN SHARES IN INHERITANCE BASED AGRICULTURE LAND; AN EMPIRICAL OVERVIEW OF CHARSADDA KHYBER PUKHTOONKHWA
The present study was conducted in district Charsadda to explore the socio-cultural berries affecting women’s share in family’s agriculture land inheritance. A sample size of 315 respondents was randomly selected from the total population size of 1760 with charactertics having land 10 acres and above. The universe was divided into three union councils and sample was drawn as per criteria by proportional allocation method. Two variables i.e. socio-cultural berries and literacy status and one dependent variable namely inheritance based agriculture land distribution practices was designed and cross tabulated with the application of chi square test statistics and Gamma to ascertain association. The association of inheritance based agriculture land distribution practices and socio-cultural factors at bivariate portrayed that the association between inheritance based agricultural land distribution practices was highly significant and negative (P=0.000, γ = -1.000) with Women relegated to work as service providers as a social patterns of society; practice of inheritance is a normative behaviour descended from forefathers; women with inherited property enjoy a will reputed status in society; Pukhtoon society follows Islamic law regarding inheritance, cultural restriction is the reason for not giving share in inheritance to females with specific reference to agriculture land, Pukhtoonwali (a set of codes of Pukhtoon’s life) is also in favour of inheritance to women in land distribution and highly significant and positive ((P=0.000, γ = 0.999) with social fabrics do encourage women to be subordinate with little freedom of access to inherited land. At multivariate level the literacy status of the respondents as a control variable explained variation in the association of inheritance based agriculture land distribution practices with socio-cultural factors (γ =0.365 and P=0.000 for illiterate, γ = 0.343 and P=0.002 for primary level, γ = 0.575 and P=0.000 for middle level, γ =0.645 and P=0.000 for high level, γ = 0.664 and P=0.001 for intermediate level and γ = 0.786 and P=0.000 for graduate level). For general acceptance, the institutional role of explaining and understanding the issue needs to be given high priority by declaring it a social problem which needs immediate redressal.