Salt Tolerance and Productivity of Winter Wheat Varieties in the Conditions of Karakalpakstan
The article presents the results of laboratory and field experiments carried out screening the world collection of some samples of soft wheat Triticumaestivum of different ecological - geographical origin in relation to salt stress.
In the sharp climate of Karakalpakstan, during the entire ontogenesis, wheat plants are constantly exposed to extreme stress factors (soil salinity, freezing winters, spring - summer dry winds). Therefore, the metabolic processes in wheat plants that occur under these conditions, especially at noon hours, are mainly aimed at self-preservation, i.e. for survival.
At the initial stages during the period of germination, the resistance of wheat samples to salinity is clearly determined by the activity of growth and development of seedlings. A saline environment inevitably leads to inhibition of seedling growth, while root growth is inhibited to a greater extent than seedling height.
On a saline agricultural background, all elements of the yield structure are quantitatively reduced, but salt-tolerant forms are less suppressed and form a high yield. They are distinguished by greater bushiness, size and illumination of the ear and the mass of 1000 grains.
On the saline soils of Karakalpakstan, the regularities of the growth of development and the formation of productivity of salt-tolerant forms were revealed with a description of economically useful signs and properties. On their basis, salt tolerant donors were identified with positive characteristics of productivity. The highest salt tolerance was observed in the Avoset-s samples; GAN-91 and 040609.
On the basis of a long-term study, a new high-yielding salt-tolerant variety of soft winter wheat "Utkir" was developed from the collection sample 040609 by the method of individual selection. As a result of the SCV (State Control of Varieties) data, the variety was zoned in 2020, and is being intensively distributed in farms of Karakalpakstan.